Table of ContentsUp

Chapter 1     Introduction……………….….....…….1

Chapter 2     The Expanding Universe……........…5

The Problems with Modern Physics ....................................... 6

Hubble’s Constant and the Shape of the Universe .............. 8

The Age of the Universe ....................................................... 19

The Constancy of Hubble’s Constant .................................. 21

The Size of the Universe ....................................................... 25

Expansion into the Fourth Dimension. ................................ 27

The Conclusions Summarized .............................................. 30

The Expanding Universe as the Stage ................................. 36

Chapter 3     Special Relativity…………….,.,……37

Basis of Special Relativity Equations ................................... 39

Derivation of Equations ........................................................ 43

Special Relativity in an Expanding Universe ...................... 47

The Lorentz Transformation Reinterpreted ........................ 49

Conclusions ............................................................................. 65

Appendix – The Lorentz Transformation ............................ 67

Chapter 4    A New Theory of Light………………75

What is really known about light ..............................,,,.......... 77

Alternative Theory --- a Lightless Universe ........................ 83

Need for a Fifth Dimension .................................................. 89

Mathematical Restrictions ....................................................... 97

Wave-Particle Duality ........................................................... 100

Conclusions ............................................................................ 101

Chapter 5    Energy in an Expanding Universe..103

The Problem with Energy ............................................ ........ 105

Special Relativity Energy Equations .................................... 109

An Alternative Theory of Mass and Energy ...................... 113

The Question of Potential Energy ...................................... 117

Conclusions ............................................................................ 119

Chapter 6   Bohr’s Atom Revisited…………..…121

Bohr’s Derivation ................................................................... 123

The Problems with Bohr’s Atom ......................................... 129

An Alternative to the Bohr Atom ........................................ 135

The Minimum Orbital Radius .............................................. 140

The Case for Redeced Velocities ........................................ 147

Notes on Planck’s constant ................................................. 157

Hot Hydrogen ....................................................................... 159

Outer Shells ........................................................................... 160

Heavier Atoms and Molecules ............................................ 162

The Helium Atom ................................................................ 163

Atoms Heavier than Helium ............................................... 166

The Hydrogen Molecule ...................................................... 168

Nutshell Picture of the Hydrogen Molecule ..................... 172

Summary ........................................................................   ....... 174

Chapter 7    General Relativity in an Expanding

Universe..................................................................................177

General Relativity…….……..........…….………… … .   .179

Gravitational Forces………...........………………… .…..189

Some Simple approximations ................................................ 199

Orbital Motion .............................................................    ...... 205

Energy Considerations .............................................   .......... 213

Comparison of Galactic and Local Times ............... ........... 217

Generalization to the three dimensional world ........ ......... 231

Additional Energy Considerations .............................  ........ 235

Translation, Rotation and Orbital Motion .................  ....... 239

Conclusions ............................................................................. 243

Chapter 8    Planck’s Constant revisited……......247

Conclusion ................................................................................ 255

Chapter 9    Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle.257

Chapter 10    Schrödinger’s Wave Equation…....261

Chapter 11_ Electrostatics and

Electrodynamics………...........................................269

Rotation of Electrons and Protons ................................ ....... 271

Compensation for Swirl ............................................................ 277

Electron Orbiting Proton ......................................................... 281

Electrodynamic Effects ............................................................ 287

Conclusions ................................................................................. 291

Appendix 1 _Charge Deformation of the x – y Surface ...... 295

Appendix 2 Vector Addition of Velocities ............................ 299

Appendix 3 _“Offsetting”T Direction Vector ........................303

Chapter 12 Summary………………………..............309